Chicago Manual Of Style Percent Symbol

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Chicago Manual Of Style Percent Symbol

Zero! To understand when to use the percent sign instead of the word percent, we need to look at the recommendations provided by all four of our primary style guides: The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago style) The Associated Press Stylebook (AP style) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA style) MLA Handbook from the Modern Language Association (MLA style) Note that The Chicago Manual of Style is the default guide for the publishing industry, so strongly consider following Chicago style if you don’t have a designated guide. For additional information about each guide, visit “ Which Style Guide Is Best for You? ” Before we begin, here are several tips for writing the percent sign regardless of which style guide you follow. Four Tips for Writing the Percent Sign in a Sentence 1. Don’t include a space between the percent sign and the numeral. Not-so-good: 17% of the inventory was moldy. Good: Unfortunately, 17% of the inventory was moldy. 3. Only use the percent sign with numerals, not spelled-out numbers. Not-so-good: Over thirty-seven% of the county fair tickets were sold before opening day. Good: Over 37% of the county fair tickets were sold before opening day. 4. Always pair the percent sign with a numeral; don’t use the percent sign as a standalone abbreviation for the noun percentage. Not-so-good: Only a small % of voters requested mail-in ballots. Good: Only a small percentage of voters requested mail-in ballots. When to Use the Percent Sign according to Chicago Style The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago style) has separate recommendations for nontechnical and technical content. For nontechnical content, Chicago style suggests using numerals and the word percent instead of the percent sign. However, if the number falls at the beginning of the sentence, it should be spelled out rather than written as a numeral. 1 The survey showed that only 9 percent of employees liked the company’s new cafeteria food.

Twenty-seven percent of the art students preferred pastels to colored pencils. For technical content, Chicago style suggests using numerals with the percent sign. But, use the word percent if the number appears at the start of the sentence with a spelled-out number. 2 Of the 500 cats in the study, 17% refused to play with the research toys. Ninety-five percent of the native trees and 75% of the feed crops survived the drought. Nontechnical Content versus Technical Content The line between nontechnical and technical content is sometimes blurry. For example, an article about astrophysics is most likely (very!) technical. However, simpler content, such as a marketing brochure for the general public, might still be considered technical if it includes a lot of numbers. In those borderline situations, choose the style you believe will best serve your audience. When to Use the Percent Sign according to AP Style The Associated Press Stylebook (AP style) recently updated its recommendations for using percent signs. Previously, AP style used the word percent with numerals. 3 Now, AP style uses the percent sign with numerals in formal content. 4 The charity drive collected 33% more donations this year. If you are referring to a percent generically or casually, AP style suggests spelling out the number and using the word percent. 5 Bob said, “I thought I had about a one percent chance of finding my lost wedding band. But here it is.” If a percent must appear at the beginning of a sentence, spell out the number and use the word percent. 6 Forty-seven percent of participants preferred ankle socks more than calf-length socks. When to Use the Percent Sign according to APA Style The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA style) recommends using numerals with the percent sign within a sentence. 7 The grocery store saw a 42% increase in ice cream sales in July.

APA style also recommends using the word percent with spelled-out numbers at the start of a sentence. 8 Fifty-three percent of the moviegoers ate popcorn; 7% ate smuggled-in candy. When to Use the Percent Sign according to MLA Style The MLA Handbook doesn’t comment on percent signs directly. However, the MLA Style Center, which is the official website of MLA Style, published guidelines stating that the word percent should be used with spelled-out numbers in general writing. 9 (Note that MLA style generally recommends spelling out all numbers that can be written in less than three words. 10 ) The professor was disappointed that only seventy-five percent of the class finished the assignment. In number-heavy documents, the MLA Style Center recommends using numerals with the percent sign (although presumably not at the start of a sentence). After training, 83% of the shelter dogs could follow sit and stay commands. Because the guidelines are not in the handbook itself, this interpretation is understandable. I hope the Modern Language Association will clarify this issue in the next edition of the handbook. Further Reading: Three Tips for Starting a Sentence with a Number References The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 9.18. The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 9.18. The Associated Press Stylebook 2018 (New York: Associated Press, 2018), 221. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2020), 6.44. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2020), 6.33. “ How do I style percentages? ” Ask the MLA, The MLA Style Center, published November 14, 2018. My name is Erin. I am a professional freelance copy editor specializing in business, research, and technical content. Notify me of new posts by email.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Primary Sidebar Are you ready to take your writing and editing to the next level. Visit my Amazon store to see many of the books and supplies I use in my own business. (As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.) Never Miss a Tutorial. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Erin Wright with appropriate and specific direction to the original content. To see search results from any of these areas of The Chicago Manual of Style Online, click on the appropriate tab.Walsh points out that we say “zero dollars,” not “zero dollar.” By this logic, you should write “0.4Please help straighten us out...talking about, say, 26.7 percent (e.g., eight of thirty women), you could see that the percentage. What to do? Here’s an example: Steven was told that 78 percent of the. Otherwise, the verb agrees with the number of the. The Chicago. The Chicago Manual of Style Online. The Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark of The University. Math? Not so much. It’s useful, yes. Important too. But having to apply it is like going to the dentist — something I need to do even if I’m less than thrilled about it. So it’s with the greater good in mind that I tackle the use of percent, percentage, percentage points and related questions. You’re welcome. For that reason, the following construction is incorrect: The latter approach is preferable but not always possible, as in sports stories. For example: The latter is correct.Numerals are used in all instances with percent except at the beginning of a sentence. It also always uses numerals with percent except at the beginning of a sentence. The important point is to apply whatever style you choose consistently. Find out more here.

And even a single style manual will point out that the guidelines change according to the type of number and the context in which it is being used. Let’s begin with four points upon which everyone seems to agree: First, we do not begin a sentence with a numeral. When spelling out a number would be awkward (as in “Two hundred seventy-five people attended the concert”), then it is best to rewrite the sentence to avoid having it begin with a number (“An intimate crowd of 275 people attended the concert”). Second, a cluster of numbers in a sentence or paragraph is best handled with numerals for readability. Third, numbers that refer to comparable quantities in close proximity should be treated the same. In the following sentence, for example, the number six is written as a numeral because the other two numbers in the same sentence are (in nontechnical writing) too complex to be expressed in words: Attendance at the board meetings last year ranged from 6 people at the first meeting to 127 at the last, with the highest attendance being 237 when we discussed the budget. Finally, decimal fractions and percentages should be expressed in numerals, not in words. We would write “The truck held 0.568 metric tons of steel” and “His approval rating increased 35 percent last week.” Note, too, that the symbol for percent (%) should be used only in technical writing; in other contexts, we use numerals before the word percent, as in the example above. The Chicago Manual of Style, our preferred guide, says that in nontechnical writing, we should spell out “whole numbers from one through one hundred, round numbers, and any number beginning a sentence” (380). Writers will want to avoid placing two numbers adjacent to one another to prevent a misreading. In such cases, it is helpful to spell out the smaller of the two numbers. For example, the phrase “10 9-inch nails” would be better written as “10 nine-inch nails.

” TEST YOURSELF: Assuming that the following sentences were written for use in nontechnical contexts, can you spot errors in the use of numbers? 386 people were forced to evacuate to shelters during the hurricane. Our library holds three thousand nine hundred sixty-four volumes on health-related issues. The movers claim that the contents of our office weighed three point two tons. Through a rigorous training program, she reduced her body fat to 12%. ANSWERS The hurricane forced the evacuation of 386 people to shelters. Our library holds 3,964 volumes on health-related issues. The movers claim that the contents of our office weighed 3.2 tons. Through a rigorous training program, she reduced her body fat to 12 percent. Copyright 2003 Get It Write. Revised 2018. Previous Next Subscribe to eNewsletter Each new article will be delivered to your e-mail address. Latest Articles Menu Subscribe About Client List Philosophy Privacy Policy Contact Categories Clarity and Precision Grammar Mechanics Miscellany Modifiers Nouns, Pronouns, and Verbs Other Topics Punctuation Titles Word Usage Writing QUICK LINKS Most Popular Articles Article Archive Website Design by FGM Internet Marketing, LLC Get It Write uses cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By using our website you consent to our use of cookies. Responsible Person means Nancy Tuten. Register of Systems means a register of all systems or contexts in which personal data is processed by the Business. 1. Data protection principles The Business is committed to processing data in accordance with its responsibilities under the GDPR. END OF POLICY Necessary Advertising Show targeted ads Cookies Used If you write a better email, you'll get a better response. Enter your email address to receive a link each week to an article focusing on ways to improve your writing and editing. We may add them to our Citation Quick Guide or use them in future editions of the Manual.

For example, does “50 to 55% of respondents” make sense, or should I use a percent sign after each numeral, making it “50% to 55%” instead. What about other units of measurement. Is “from 100 to 110km” better or worse than “from 100km to 110km”. Also, would you use the % sign after both the 20 and the 40. What about time ranges. As is typical when dealing with English grammar rules and style guidelines, the answers depend on the circumstances. In nontechnical text, the convention is to use the numeral with the word percent. Ex. Marci predicted a 75 percent chance that John would cancel their date. That being said, The Chicago Manual of Style advocates use of the percentage symbol in nontechnical text that’s chock-full of percentages. Direct-response marketing copy, which relies heavily on specific proof, falls into this category. (Plus, testing shows that the percentage sign does a better job of grabbing readers’ attention.) Ex. This little-known stock produced gains of 286% after only six months. Beyond that, using “to” versus an en dash or opting for one or two percentage signs depends on house style or client preference. The style selected simply needs to be consistent—certainly within the document and preferably throughout the organization’s materials. Time of Day Use numerals—including the zeros for even hours—when emphasizing exact time. (Times ranges fall in this category.) Ex. The meeting was scheduled to start at 6:00 p.m. and end at 7:30 p.m. When referring to time of day in even, half or quarter hours, spell it out. Ex. The wedding ceremony begins at two thirty. If you’re curious, the appropriate style for abbreviating ante meridiem and post meridiem is either lowercase with periods (a.m. and p.m.) or small caps without periods (which I can’t figure out with WordPress’s limited formatting options). Tags: proofreading SHARE THIS: Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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The style guidelines of the German Wikipedia agree that there should be a space, but even in their article on the percent sign itself that rule is occasionally ignored: for every instance with a space, there's another one without. So much for standards. Note that Wikipedia uses no space, as in the article for Percentage. The grooves in the drive sheave arApproximately 10-50% of pregnancies endMajor towns are Peterhead (1. MND is typically fatal within 2-5 years. Around 50% die within 14 months of diagIn Swedish, with space seems more common. Why focus on '50 %' only.With my RegEx I get 2644:936770. However, the majority of Wikipedia editors doing this merely proves your point that the space is mostly neglected, but not whether it should be there or not. From what I read, German people tend to omit the there-mandatory space for example, yet that doesn't magically modify the respective norm.Earn 10 reputation in order to answer this question. The reputation requirement helps protect this question from spam and non-answer activity.Browse other questions tagged numbers typography measuring-units spacing or ask your own question. It’s our go-to source for editing guidelines and for any suggestions we editors make to authors about their manuscript. Although CMS contains volumes of principles and guidelines about writing, here are five general rules that might surprise you. According to CMS, you spell out numbers from zero to one hundred: zero, ten, twenty, thirty-five, one hundred. Then, starting with 101, you use the numeral: 101, 203, 5,635, etc. If you’ve seen numbers expressed differently, it’s because journalists or scientists, for example, usually follow the rule of spelling out only single-digit numbers (one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine) and using numerals for all others (10, 20, 33, 105, etc.).

The exception to the CMS rule of spelling out numbers from zero to one hundred occurs when you write a paragraph with “mixed numbers”—some above 101 and some below 100. In that case, you should express all the numbers in that paragraph as numerals. The exception occurs when the percentage starts a sentence. Then the number should be spelled out: Seventy-five percent of the runners crossed the finish line. When dealing with commas, people often get tripped up with compound predicates, a sentence that contains a subject and two verbs. They see the conjunction in the sentence (and, but, or), and they want to put a comma in front of it—the way you would with two independent clauses. When in doubt, count the subjects. If there’s only one subject, resist inserting the comma: She went to the beach and read an entire novel in one afternoon (compound predicate; no comma needed). She went to the beach, and he carried the umbrella (two independent clauses joined by a conjunction; comma is needed). Writers often want to use initial caps with a person’s title, but CMS states that you should only use initial caps when the title precedes the person’s proper name. For example, you would be “General Green Jeans” but “Mr. Green Jeans, the general in my private army, provides good cheer to my troops.” People break this rule all the time, probably because they feel rightfully proud of their work, so they want to express that pride using an initial cap. But a good editor will stay faithful to CMS and point out this rule to authors. There’s a magic number in CMS: 7.85. That’s the section on compound hyphenation. CMS provides a multipage table that will answer any question you might have about whether a word should be hyphenated or not. Click here for a link to this handy table. The new CMOS 17 edition is out now. I’m all right with no longer hyphenating “email,” but “internet” (not capitalized) still looks funny to me. However, as an editor, I need to stay current and stick by CMS rules.

Umpires in baseball drive me crazy with their customized strike zone. The players should know from the start of the game how things will be evaluated. CMS allows us as editors to abide by and explain a uniform policy to authors. In other words, The Chicago Manual of Style is an editor’s conscience, guide, and companion, one that holds us accountable to our authors and publishers. She earned her editing certification through the UC Berkeley Extension Profession Sequence in Editing program. She is also the author of two coming-of-age novels, Joy Returns. Whether to use figures or words depends on the overall style by which you abide and the nature of the material with which you are working. If a number higher than 100 is rounded off or approximated, spell it out in nonscientific copy. Otherwise, 100 and higher are numerals, in text. An exception to this is online text, where in a way all bets are off. The idea of online text is to keep it short, with consideration to search engine optimization and other factors that are beyond the scope of print publications. For online writing, numerals frequently are used in all instances. In print or online, for charts and graphs, use numerals. See the Chicago Manual for examples and more information. Treat numbers in the same sentence alike: If there’s a three-figure numeral in the sentence, make all the numbers figures, as long as the figures all relate to the same items. However, when a building’s name is also its address, the number is spelled out: One Park Place. Also, use numerals when referring to credit hours. (Note use of “in” with credits and “of” with units.) For those involved in desktop publishing, please note that A.D. and B.C. are set in small caps (typeface about two points smaller than rest of text). If you cannot reproduce small caps on your typewriter, do not worry; the Department of University Publications will make them for you when you submit your manuscript. Also note that B.C. follows the date, while A.D.

precedes it. If you spell out the number, then spell out the currency reference and vice versa. That’s easier for readers to pick out when they’re looking for the cost. Whether to abbreviate or spell out depends on the nature of the publication. Spell out number in text; abbreviate in listings, charts, or graphs. Rearrange the sentence if spelling out the number makes it cumbersome. Avoid putting numbers next to numbers—separate the numbers with words if possible. If a symbol is used with the quantity, use a numeral. For two or more in quantity, the symbol should be repeated: But in ordinary text, treat the numbers according to University style as explained in this section. Although times of day are often spelled out in text, in most University material, the time of day is important for scheduling purposes; thus, University style has come to be the figure and a.m. or p.m. in both text and schedule listings. Because time designations are not always on the hour, for consistency, use:00 with times that are on the hour. Note that a.m. and p.m. are not capitalized. How does that perceived math deficiency affect us when we write about numbers. This article covers some of the more scintillating rules. Sadly, that is more complicated than it should be. If you are dying to know the exact definitions of these words, please refer to the endnote. 1 The rest of you will be content to know that, in this article, numbers are values that can be expressed by words or figures (so, “11” and “eleven” are examples of numbers), and numerals are figures (so, “11” is a numeral, but “eleven” is not). Fortunately, the rules about numbers in writing are much easier — and more scintillating — than the definitions of words related to numbers. The Oregon Appellate Courts Style Manual says to spell out numbers from zero to nine (as does the Bulletin), and Chicago recognizes this alternative as popular in some publications. All style manuals list exceptions, whatever their rule.

Since the style manuals don’t agree, you get to choose. So if you are listing the number of books read by children in an elementary school’s summer program, and one student read over one hundred books, you should use numerals for all. If you can’t abide by that simple rule in a particular instance, then you must rewrite the sentence. Kids, libraries, books!) Follow the general rule you’ve chosen for regular numbers (which are actually called “cardinal numbers”) for ordinals as well. If you’ve chosen to write out whole numbers through 99 (“ninety-nine”), you should write out ordinals as well. Note that ordinals are hyphenated whenever the cardinals are. Sixty-one is hyphenated, so sixty-firstIf the trial has been going on for nine days and has included 35 witnesses (did you all cringe at the mix and match??), choose one form: In text, however, follow the rest of the world by using “rd” (thank you, Bluebook for another inconsistency). The result is “P.3d” but the “123rd Congress.” That means a citation will include “9th Cir.” rather than “9 th Cir.” The manuals suggest not using superscript for ordinals in text, as shown by 9th and 35th in the example earlier. Your computer will want to show off by making all ordinals superscript because it looks so cute.You can spell out these numbers if they are short (e.g., two and one-half hours).Depending on the audience, either write out “percent” or use “%.” Do not include a space before “%.” For example, simply add an “s” to words like three, hundred and kajillion. (No, kajillion is not a word, but if it were, a simple “s” would make it plural.) As another example, change the “y” to “i” and add “es.” It works for thirty to become thirties, just as it does for family to become families. Numerals become plural with the simple addition of an “s.” No apostrophe needed. Although we read the day as though it were an ordinal (e.g., “March 3rd”), write the day as “March 3.” Use the ordinal only when the day appears without the year.

If you must spell out a year, perhaps because you absolutely must begin a sentence with it, avoid using “and” (i.e., don’t write “two thousand and thirty-seven”). I consider legal writing to be technical writing, however, so I suggest “80 yards,” “14 miles” and “97 degrees,” even if you are writing out numbers to one hundred. Even Chicago sees the clarity of “a 40-watt bulb” and “a 32-inch inseam,” rather than the spelled-out versions. Happily, I report that the Oregon courts agree with me. Some countries use “billion” to mean a million million. In the United States, we call a million million a “trillion.” Note that Great Britain only came over to our side of this debate fairlyAs Michael Jackson sang, “It’s easy as one, two, three.” But, wait! The second definition says a numeral is “a word expressing a number.” So that means numeral includes both “11” and “eleven.” Is there any doubt why we all became lawyers instead of mathematicians? For the sake of clarity, it was not used in the editing of this article. She is grateful to students in her fall writing colloquium for their feedback on an earlier draft that was far too long and much too dry. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience. Only four percent of those responding planned to continue to graduate school in Spanish or related disciplines. (Compitello 91) Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Summer 2016 and Fall 2016: Preliminary Report. Do not edit the contents of this page. If you wish to start a new discussion or revive an old one, please do so on the current talk page. Well a source for that rule would be great. -- 01:28, 28 July 2007 (UTC)Please log on if you want to debate the matter.This is standard usage in all web copy; I cannot recall ever seeing a space inserted, in any web page. Additionally, 15.65 (subscriber link) specifically notes that no space should be used. Chicago Manual of Style (15th hardback print ed.